Terrorism essays outline
In most countries — particularly across Europe, the Americas and Oceania — deaths from terrorism accounted for less than 0. They are rare in most countries of the world today. This is not true everywhere.
In a number of countries across the Middle East and Africa, terrorist deaths reach up to several percent. Iraq was the most affected4.
Terrorism essay outline
These are countries where overall conflict — of which terrorist activity is a part — is high. In fact, as we discuss here , the boundary between terrorism, conflict, one-sided violence or civil war is not always clear-cut. The map above shows an overview for The extent of terrorism in most countries is very low. But — as we mentioned in the global-level data — this can change from year to year [you can see this on the map above using the timeline on the bottom of the chart].
Attacks can be non-existent for many years before an unexpected rise or spike. What effect does this have? The United States provides an important example. Terrorism deaths in most years are very few: typically below 0. It claimed lives, accounting for 0. We should therefore be aware of this volatility: having few deaths from terrorism in one year is not a predictor for the next. Overall we see that terrorism deaths globally — and in most parts of the world — are relatively rare. Much more common risks — often ones that we can influence — kill many more people.
An estimated 7 million deaths each year result from smoking; 4. The dominance of terrorism in the daily news cycle can mean that we lose perspective of this.
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But is this really true? In the visualization below we shown terrorism deaths in Western Europe since Another useful resource which cross-references well with this database for Western Europe is the Wikipedia entry : you can find further context of particular events there. Here we see annual deaths from terrorism in the order of hundreds, and reaching over deaths in some years.
The United Kingdom was home to the largest share of deaths for much of the 70s, 80s, and 90s. We see quite a marked decline post with the Good Friday Agreement between British and Irish governments. Since the Millennium the annual death toll has been below 50 deaths in most years, and often below For context, compare that to how many people die on the roads : in around 70 people died every day in road incidents. The year to year changes are nonetheless volatile. Large terrorist attacks — such as the Madrid train bombings in ; London bombings; Norway attacks; Paris attacks; the truck attacks in Nice and the Berlin Christmas market attack in ; and the Manchester and Barcelona attacks in — have occurred since the turn of the century.
This trend is also reflected when we look at the number of terrorist attacks. With exception of the s, terrorism data in Western Europe can be hard to see when bundled with other regions.
This in itself is an important point: terrorist deaths in Western Europe are very low within the global context. This has changed dramatically since then. In , only 0. Between and — over almost two decades — there were just under deaths in Western Europe from terrorism. This is equal to the death toll of only two to three years during the s.
The Global Terrorism Database GTD — the most comprehensive database of terrorist incidents to date — was founded and is currently maintained from programmes in the United States. This, combined with the fact that terrorist incidents would have been covered extensively in the US media dating back to the s makes it likely that it has the most complete record of terrorist attacks in recent decades.
In the visualization below we show the annual death toll from terrorism in the US since The September 11 attacks in New York stand out as the most fatal terrorist event in the world in recent history.
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In fact, claiming the lives of nearly people, the death toll in was almost four times higher than the combined deaths from terrorism in the US since Over the last five years there has been a small but steady increase in terrorist deaths in the US. In most years terror attacks caused fewer than 50 deaths per year, and in many years no one died from attacks.
With exception of , terrorism accounted for less than 0. For comparison, around people die in road accidents in the United States every day. When we look at the number of terrorist attacks we see a marked decline since the early s. Globally, over 26, people died in terrorist attacks in Where in the world did terrorists kill most people?
In the chart below we see the number of deaths from terrorism by region in This is also true when we look at the number of incidents , rather than the number of deaths. As we will see in the following section, not only is there a strong regional focus but this is also heavily concentrated in only a few countries within these regions.
Guerrilla movements in Central and South America, for example, dominated terrorism in the s. Terrorism is often regionally-focused. The Middle East and North Africa had by far the largest number of deaths in ; but not all countries were affected. We see the number of terrorism deaths by country in the map below. This was one-in-four terrorism deaths globally. But some countries in the region — such as Nepal — had almost none. Looking at the where in the world terrorism happens highlights an important point: it tends to be in countries with high levels of internal conflict.
Here we discuss in detail the challenges of separating terrorism from other forms of conflict such as civil war or homicide. This proves difficult because often there is a strong overlap. If we look at a recent list of terrorist incidents across the world — take June as an example — we see the majority are events that most people would understand to be terrorism: roadside bombings; car detonations; attacks on religious or political institutions. Although usually performed by one or a small group of individuals, most are affiliated with well-known terrorist groups, such as Islamic State, Taliban, Boko Haram, and Al-Shabaab.
Again, most people would clearly associate these with terrorism violence. But where the lines become blurred is that many of these groups are rebel or insurgency groups in various domestic conflicts. Islamic State, for example, is a key instigator in the Syrian civil war; Al-Shabaab in internal Somalian conflict. This means that most terrorism occurs in countries of high conflict because the internal conflict is — to a certain extent — terrorism. Airline hijackings are a very visible form of terrorism.
But whilst hijackings can seem like a modern form of terrorism, they have a long history: in fact, hijackings today are very rare and much less frequent than the past.
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Most commonly, hijackers would demand the pilot fly to a specific location, or sometimes hijackers would attempt to fly the aircraft themselves. Incidents of hijacking have been around almost as long as human flight itself with suspected hijacks dating as far back as , and the first recorded hijacking in But they were still relatively rare until the s.
In the chart below we see the annual number of hijacking incidents and fatalities globally from onwards. This data is sourced from the Aviation Safety Network , which provides up-to-date and complete information on airliner accidents across the world. Here we see very few incidents in the s, with a small rise through the s and s. Until , there were never more than 10 incidents in a year.
But from to , there was a sharp rise in hijackings — particularly in the United States. Over this 5-year period there were hijackings globally. Most ended in no fatalities: 46 were killed, 25 of which happened in This is a measure we take for granted today. Over the period from until , hijacking incidents across the world were fairly consistent, in the range of around 20 to 40 per year.
In most years there were very few fatalities, although these were interspersed with fatal events which would kill tens of passengers. Four airliners were hijacked, two of which were flown into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center. Regulation was quickly tightened. Cockpit doors on many aircraft are now bulletproof and reinforced; security checks are now standard in most countries, including domestic flights at the time, many countries had no or random checks for domestic travel ; and levels of airport screening have been tightened significantly.
Many people are worried about flying because of the perceived risk of terrorism. Some may avoid flying completely. Aviation, especially commercial air travel, is very safe.
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If we put it in perspective of the number of the number of people flying, in there were only 0. This has improved significantly since the s when there was around 5 deaths per million passengers. Hijacking deaths are then only a very small fraction of the total from aviation. In the chart below we see the annual deaths from commercial airliners, and the number specifically from hijackings. This again highlights that hijacking fatalities are rare: with increased safety measures post there have been almost none.
Spreading widespread fear is a key aim of terrorism. How effective have terrorists been in this regard? How many of us are actually worried about terrorism? Many of the most comprehensive surveys on public opinion on terrorism have been conducted in the United States. The visualization below shows public concern for terrorism in the US since Throughout this period — with the exception of — less than 0.
We also see that concerns were spiking after large terrorist attacks in the US or European countries. When we see a recent attack in the news, we become more worried it will also happen to us or family members. We should treat these results with some caution. Is this asking about how likely we think this scenario is? The level of risk? People may interpret it differently.