Different types of drugs essay
Psychoactive drugs are chemical substances that affect the function of the central nervous system , altering perception , mood or consciousness. These psychotropic drugs have been proven useful in treating wide range of medical conditions including mental disorders around the world. The most widely used drugs in the world include caffeine , nicotine and alcohol ,  which are also considered recreational drugs , since they are used for pleasure rather than medicinal purposes.
Many recreational drugs are illicit and international treaties such as the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs exist for the purpose of their prohibition. In English, the noun "drug" is thought to originate from Old French "drogue", possibly deriving later into "droge-vate" from Middle Dutch meaning "dry barrels", referring to medicinal plants preserved in them.
A medication or medicine is a drug taken to cure or ameliorate any symptoms of an illness or medical condition. The use may also be as preventive medicine that has future benefits but does not treat any existing or pre-existing diseases or symptoms. Dispensing of medication is often regulated by governments into three categories— over-the-counter medications, which are available in pharmacies and supermarkets without special restrictions; behind-the-counter medicines, which are dispensed by a pharmacist without needing a doctor's prescription, and prescription only medicines , which must be prescribed by a licensed medical professional , usually a physician.
In the United Kingdom, behind-the-counter medicines are called pharmacy medicines which can only be sold in registered pharmacies, by or under the supervision of a pharmacist. These medications are designated by the letter P on the label. Medications are typically produced by pharmaceutical companies and are often patented to give the developer exclusive rights to produce them.
Say no to drugs essay
Those that are not patented or with expired patents are called generic drugs since they can be produced by other companies without restrictions or licenses from the patent holder. Pharmaceutical drugs are usually categorised into drug classes. A group of drugs will share a similar chemical structure , or have the same mechanism of action , the same related mode of action or target the same illness or related illnesses. This groups drugs according to their solubility and permeability or absorption properties. Some religions, particularly ethnic religions are based completely on the use of certain drugs, known as entheogens , which are mostly hallucinogens ,— psychedelics , dissociatives , or deliriants.
Some drugs used as entheogens include kava which can act as a stimulant , a sedative , a euphoriant and an anesthetic. The roots of the kava plant are used to produce a drink which is consumed throughout the cultures of the Pacific Ocean. Some shamans from different cultures use entheogens, defined as "generating the divine within"  to achieve religious ecstasy. Mazatec shamans have a long and continuous tradition of religious use of Salvia divinorum a psychoactive plant.
Its use is to facilitate visionary states of consciousness during spiritual healing sessions. Silene undulata is regarded by the Xhosa people as a sacred plant and used as an entheogen.
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Its root is traditionally used to induce vivid and according to the Xhosa, prophetic lucid dreams during the initiation process of shamans , classifying it a naturally occurring oneirogen similar to the more well-known dream herb Calea ternifolia. Peyote a small spineless cactus has been a major source of psychedelic mescaline and has probably been used by Native Americans for at least five thousand years.
The entheogenic use of cannabis has also been widely practised  for centuries. Psychedelic mushrooms psilocybin mushrooms , commonly called magic mushrooms or shrooms have also long been used as entheogens. Nootropics , also commonly referred to as "smart drugs", are drugs that are claimed to improve human cognitive abilities.
Nootropics are used to improve memory, concentration, thought, mood, and learning. An increasingly used nootropic among students, also known as a study drug , is methylphenidate branded commonly as Ritalin and used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and narcolepsy. Evidence for use outside of student settings is limited but suggests that that it is commonplace.
Some nootropics are also now beginning to be used to treat medical conditions such as Parkinson's disease , and Alzheimer's disease. They are also commonly used to regain brain function lost during aging.
Other drugs known as designer drugs are produced. An early example of what today would be labelled a 'designer drug' was LSD , which was synthesised from ergot.
Since the late s there has been the identification of many of these synthesised drugs. In Japan and the United Kingdom this has spurred the addition of many designer drugs into a newer class of controlled substances known as a temporary class drug.
Synthetic cannabinoids have been produced for a longer period of time and are used in the designer drug synthetic cannabis. Recreational drug use is the use of a drug legal, controlled, or illegal with the primary intention of altering the state of consciousness through alteration of the central nervous system in order to create positive emotions and feelings.
The hallucinogen LSD is a psychoactive drug commonly used as a recreational drug. Some national laws prohibit the use of different recreational drugs; and medicinal drugs that have the potential for recreational use are often heavily regulated. However, there are many recreational drugs that are legal in many jurisdictions and widely culturally accepted. Cannabis is the most commonly consumed controlled recreational drug in the world as of It can be used in the leaf form of marijuana grass , or in the resin form of hashish.
Marijuana is a more mild form of cannabis than hashish. There may be an age restriction on the consumption and purchase of legal recreational drugs. Some recreational drugs that are legal and accepted in many places include alcohol , tobacco , betel nut , and caffeine products, and in some areas of the world the legal use of drugs such as khat is common.
There are a number of legal intoxicants commonly called legal highs that are used recreationally. The most widely used of these is alcohol.
All drugs, can be administered via a number of routes , and many can be administered by more than one. There are numerous governmental offices in many countries that deal with the control and oversee of drug manufacture and use, and the implementation of various drug laws. The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is an international treaty brought about in to prohibit the use of narcotics save for those used in medical research and treatment. In , a second treaty the Convention on Psychotropic Substances had to be introduced to deal with newer recreational psychoactive and psychedelic drugs.
The legal status of Salvia divinorum varies in many countries and even in states within the United States. Where it is legislated against the degree of prohibition also varies. The Food and Drug Administration FDA in the United States is a federal agency responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of food safety , tobacco products , dietary supplements , prescription and over-the-counter medications , vaccines , biopharmaceuticals , blood transfusions , medical devices , electromagnetic radiation emitting devices, cosmetics , animal foods  and veterinary drugs.
One very common belief is that drug abusers should be able to just stop taking drugs if they are only willing to change their behavior.
What people often underestimate is the complexity of drug addiction—that it is a disease that impacts the brain and because of that, stopping drug abuse is not. This is an agency within an agency. The main reason I chose this area is due to two factors: the first one is that drug and alcohol is such a sever addiction that it is almost impossible for the individual to get out of it on their own.
The second factor is first-hand experience. I myself have been down the same road as so many others with drug abuse and addiction. I certainly believe that this experience will. Illegal Drug Abuse For quite a long time, different types of drugs have been used across the globe. Indeed, the different drugs have been observed to impose varying impacts on users. While some of the drugs are curative and positive in usage, others are remarkably detrimental and can facilitate the mental and psychological breakdown of the user and their families.
In this respect, many of the detrimental drugs have been illegalized in many parts of the world. In the United States, for instance, cocaine. Drug abuse is the recurrent use of illegal drugs, or the misuse of prescription or over the counter drugs with negative consequences. The two terms, drug abuse or substance abuse can be defined as the use of chemical substances that lead to an increased risk of problems and an inability to control the use of the substance.
Although drug and substance abuse do differ from addiction it sometimes can be mistaken for one another.
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Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive. The number of male inmates has increased considerably in the recent years mainly due to a high number arrests and prosecutions that are drug related. Many correctional facilities offer educational and treatment interventions to help them. However, significant gaps remain. S tracks prevalence trends and the type of drugs used in different urban areas.